Michael Joseph Jackson (born August 29, 1958) is an American recording artist, entertainer, and businessman. The seventh child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional music scene at the age of 11 as a member of The Jackson 5 and began a solo career in 1971 while still a member of the group. Referred to as the "King of Pop" in subsequent years, five of his solo studio albums have become some of the world's best-selling records: Off the Wall (1979), Thriller (1982), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991) and HIStory (1995).
In the early 1980s, he became a dominant figure in popular music and the first African-American entertainer to amass a strong crossover following on MTV. The popularity of his music videos airing on MTV, such as "Beat It", "Billie Jean" and Thriller—credited for transforming the music video into an art form and a promotional tool—helped bring the relatively new channel to fame. Videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" kept Jackson as a staple on MTV into the 1990s. With stage performances and music videos, Jackson popularized a number of physically complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk. His distinctive musical sound and vocal style influenced numerous hip hop, pop and contemporary R&B artists.
Jackson has donated and raised millions of dollars for beneficial causes through his Dangerous World Tour, charity singles and support of 39 charities. However, other aspects of his personal life—including his changing appearance and eccentric behavior—generated significant controversy which damaged his public image. Though he was accused of child sexual abuse in 1993, the criminal investigation was closed due to lack of evidence and Jackson was not charged. He then married twice and fathered three children, all of which caused further controversy. The singer has experienced health concerns since the early 1990s and conflicting reports regarding the state of his finances since the late 1990s. In 2005, Jackson was tried and acquitted of further sexual abuse allegations and several other charges.
One of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, his other achievements include multiple Guinness World Records—including one for Thriller as the world's best-selling album—13 Grammy Awards, 13 number one singles in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era—and the sale of over 750 million units worldwide. Jackson's highly publicized personal life, coupled with his successful career, has made him a part of popular culture for almost four decades. He has been cited as one of the world's most famous men.
1958–1975: Early life and The Jackson 5Editar
Plantilla:Seealso Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana (an industrial suburb of Chicago, Illinois) to a working-class family on August 29, 1958. The son of Joseph "Joe" Walter and Katherine Esther (née Scruse), he is the seventh of nine children. His siblings are Rebbie, Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, La Toya, Marlon, Randy and Janet. Joseph Jackson was a steel mill employee who often performed in an R&B band called The Falcons with his brother Luther. Jackson was raised a Jehovah's Witness by his devout mother.
From a young age Jackson was physically and mentally abused by his father, enduring incessant rehearsals, whippings and name-calling. Jackson's abuse as a child affected him throughout his grown life. In one altercation—later recalled by Marlon Jackson—Joseph held Michael upside down by one leg and "pummelled him over and over again with his hand, hitting him on his back and buttocks". Joseph would often trip up, or push the male children into walls. One night while Jackson was asleep, Joseph climbed into his room through the bedroom window. Wearing a fright mask, he entered the room screaming and shouting. Joseph said he wanted to teach his children not to leave the window open when they went to sleep. For years afterward, Jackson suffered nightmares about being kidnapped from his bedroom.
Jackson first spoke openly about his childhood abuse in a 1993 interview with Oprah Winfrey. He said that during his childhood he often cried from loneliness and would sometimes get sick or start to regurgitate upon seeing his father. In Jackson's other high profile interview, Living with Michael Jackson (2003), the singer covered his face with his hand and began crying when talking about his childhood abuse. Jackson recalled that Joseph sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed and that "[i]f you didn't do it the right way, he would tear you up, really get you."
Jackson showed musical talent early in his life, performing in front of classmates and others during a Christmas recital at the age of five. In 1964, Jackson and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by brothers Jackie, Tito and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine, respectively. Jackson later began performing backup vocals and dancing; at the age of eight, he and Jermaine assumed lead vocals, and the group's name was changed to The Jackson 5. The band toured the Midwest extensively from 1966 to 1968. The band frequently performed at a string of black clubs and venues collectively known as the "chitlin' circuit", where they often opened for stripteases and other adult acts. In 1966, they won a major local talent show with renditions of Motown hits and James Brown's "I Got You (I Feel Good)", led by Michael.
The Jackson 5 recorded several songs for the local record label Steeltown in 1967 and signed with Motown Records in 1968. Rolling Stone magazine later described the young Michael as "a prodigy" with "overwhelming musical gifts", noting that Michael "quickly emerged as the main draw and lead singer" after he began to dance and sing with his brothers. Though Michael sang with a "child's piping voice, he danced like a grown-up hoofer and sang with the R&B/gospel inflections of Sam Cooke, James Brown, Ray Charles and Stevie Wonder". The group set a chart record when its first four singles ("I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save" and "I'll Be There") peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot 100. During The Jackson 5's early years, Motown's public relations team claimed that Jackson was nine years old—two years younger than he actually was—to make him appear cuter and more accessible to the mainstream audience. Starting in 1972, Jackson released a total of four solo studio albums with Motown, among them Got to Be There and Ben. These were released as part of the Jackson 5 franchise, and produced successful singles such as "Got to Be There", "Ben" and a remake of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin". The group's sales began declining in 1973, and the band members chafed under Motown's strict refusal to allow them creative control or input. Although the group scored several top 40 hits, including the top 5 disco single "Dancing Machine" and the top 20 hit "I Am Love", the Jackson 5 left Motown in 1975.
1976–1981: Move to Epic and Off the WallEditar
The Jackson 5 signed a new contract with CBS Records in June 1975, joining first the Philadelphia International Records division and then Epic Records. As a result of legal proceedings, the group was renamed The Jacksons. After the name change, the band continued to tour internationally, releasing six more albums between 1976 and 1984. From 1976 to 1984, Michael Jackson was the lead songwriter of the group, writing hits such as "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)", "This Place Hotel" and "Can You Feel It".
In 1978, Jackson starred as Scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz. The musical scores were arranged by Quincy Jones, who formed a partnership with Jackson during the film's production and agreed to produce the singer's solo album Off the Wall. In 1979, Jackson broke his nose during a complex dance routine. His subsequent rhinoplasty surgery was not a complete success, and Jackson complained of breathing difficulties that would affect his career. He was referred to Dr. Steven Hoefflin, who performed Jackson's second rhinoplasty and other subsequent operations.
Jones and Jackson jointly produced Off the Wall, whose songwriters included Jackson, Heatwave's Rod Temperton, Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney. Released in 1979, Off the Wall was the first album to generate four US top 10 hits, including the chart-topping singles "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" and "Rock with You". Off the Wall reached number three on the Billboard 200 and has since been certified for 7 million shipments in the US and eventually sold over 15 million copies worldwide. In 1980, Jackson won three awards at the American Music Awards for his solo efforts: Favorite Soul/R&B Album, Favorite Male Soul/R&B Artist and Favorite Soul/R&B Single (for "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough"). That year, he also won Billboard Music Awards for Top Black Artist and Top Black Album and a Grammy Award for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance (for "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough"). Despite its commercial success, Jackson felt Off the Wall should have made a much bigger impact, and was determined to exceed expectations with his next release. In 1980, Jackson secured the highest royalty rate in the music industry: 37% of wholesale album profit.
1982–1985: Thriller, Motown 25, We Are the World and business careerEditar
In 1982, Jackson contributed the song "Someone In the Dark" to the storybook for the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial; the record won a Grammy for Best Album for Children. That year Jackson issued his second Epic album, Thriller. The album remained in the top 10 of the Billboard 200 for 80 consecutive weeks and 37 of those weeks at the peak position. It was the first album to have seven Billboard Hot 100 top 10 singles, including "Billie Jean", "Beat It" and Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'. Thriller was certified for 27 million shipments by the RIAA, giving it Double Diamond status in the US. It is often cited as the best-selling album of all time, with worldwide sales between 47 million and 104 million copies.
Jackson changed the way the industry functioned; as an artistic entity and a financial, profitable organisation. His attorney John Branca noted that Jackson had the highest royalty rate in the music industry at that point; approximately $2 for every album sold. He was also making record breaking profit from compact discs or the sale of The Making of Michael Jackson's Thriller; a documentary produced by Jackson and John Landis. Funded by MTV, the documentary sold over 350,000 copies in a few months of sale. The era saw the arrival of novelties like the Michael Jackson doll, that appeared in stores in May 1984 at a price of $12. Thriller retains a position in American culture; biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli explains, "At some point, Thriller stopped selling like a leisure item—like a magazine, a toy, tickets to a hit movie—and started selling like a household staple."
Gil Friesen, President of A&M Records, said "the whole industry has a stake in this success". Thriller raised the importance of albums, but multiple hits also changed notions about the number of singles to release. Time magazine explained that "the fallout from Thriller has given the [music] business its best years since the heady days of 1978, when it had an estimated total domestic revenue of $4.1 billion". Time summed up Thriller's impact as a "restoration of confidence" for an industry bordering on "the ruins of punk and the chic regions of synthesizer pop". The publication described Jackson's influence at that point as "Star of records, radio, rock video. A one-man rescue team for the music business. A songwriter who sets the beat for a decade. A dancer with the fanciest feet on the street. A singer who cuts across all boundaries of taste and style and color too". The New York Times called him a "musical phenomenon", saying that "in the world of pop music, there is Michael Jackson and there is everybody else". According to the The Washington Post, Thriller paved the way for other acts such as Prince.
On March 25, 1983, Jackson performed live on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever television special, both with The Jackson 5 and on his own singing "Billie Jean". Debuting his signature dance move—the moonwalk—his performances during the event were seen by 47 million viewers during its initial airing, and drew comparions to Elvis Presley's and the The Beatles' appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show. The New York Times said, "The moonwalk that he made famous is an apt metaphor for his dance style. How does he do it? As a technician, he is a great illusionist, a genuine mime. His ability to keep one leg straight as he glides while the other bends and seems to walk requires perfect timing".
Jackson suffered a setback on January 27, 1984. While filming a Pepsi Cola commercial at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Jackson suffered second degree burns to his scalp after pyrotechnics accidentally set his hair on fire. Happening in front of a full house of fans during a simulated concert, the incident was the subject of heavy media scrutiny and elicited an outpouring of sympathy. PepsiCo settled a lawsuit out of court, and Jackson gave his $1.5 million settlement to the "Michael Jackson Burn Center" which was a piece of new technology to help people with severe burns. Jackson had his third rhinoplasty shortly afterward and grew self conscious about his appearance.
On May 14, 1984, Jackson was invited to the White House to receive an award presented by American President Ronald Reagan. The award was given for Jackson's support of charities that helped people overcome alcohol and drug abuse. Jackson won eight awards during the 1984 Grammys. Unlike later albums, Thriller did not have an official tour to promote it, but the 1984 Victory Tour, headlined by The Jacksons, showcased much of Jackson's new solo material to more than two million Americans. He donated his $5 million share from the Victory Tour to charity.
Jackson co-wrote the charity single "We Are the World" with Lionel Richie, which was released worldwide to aid the poor in Africa and the US. He was one of 39 music celebrities who performed on the record. The single became one of the best-selling singles of all time, with nearly 20 million copies sold and millions of dollars donated to famine relief. It was also the first time Jackson was seen as a humanitarian.
The singer purchased Northern Songs, a music catalog holding thousands of songs. The catalog includes The Beatles' back catalog and songs by Elvis Presley. Jackson outbid Paul McCartney and Yoko Ono at a cost of $47.5 million. The idea came to Jackson while working with McCartney on the two hit singles "The Girl Is Mine" and "Say Say Say" a few years prior. The pair became friendly, occasionally visiting one another. In one discussion, McCartney told Jackson about the millions of dollars he had made from music catalogs; he was earning approximately $40 million a year from other peoples songs.
Jackson began a business career buying music and shortly afterward Northern Songs was put up for sale. He was warned that he would face strong competition, excited, he skipped around the room saying, "I don't care. I want those songs. Get me those songs Branca [his attorney]". Branca then contacted the attorney of McCartney, who clarified that his client was not interested in bidding because, "It's too pricey". After Jackson had started negotiations, McCartney changed his mind and tried to persuade Yoko Ono to join him in a joint bid, she declined, so he pulled out. Jackson eventually beat off the rest of the competition in negotiations that lasted 10 months. When McCartney found out he said, "I think it's dodgy to do things like that. To be someone's friend and then buy the rug they're standing on". Reacting to that statement, biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli observed that McCartney made millions of dollars from the music of other people. He had more money than Jackson at that point so could have made a substantial bid for his own music and would not have suffered financial difficulties from Jackson owning the catalog.
1986–1990: Tabloids, appearance, Bad, autobiography and filmsEditar
Plantilla:Seealso In 1986, the tabloid press ran a story claiming that Jackson slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber to slow the aging process; he was pictured lying down in a glass box. Although the claim was untrue, Jackson disseminated the fabricated story himself. The singer was promoting his upcoming movie Captain EO and wanted to promote a sci-fi image of himself. Jackson had a fourth rhinoplasty and, wanting masculine features, had a cleft put in his chin. Then he starred in the Francis Ford Coppola-directed 3-D film Captain EO. It was the most expensive film produced on a per-minute basis at the time, and was later hosted in Disney theme parks. Disneyland featured the film in its Tomorrowland area for nearly 11 years, while Walt Disney World screened the film in its Epcot theme park from 1986 to 1994.
Jackson bought and befriended a pet chimpanzee called Bubbles which extended his eccentric persona, in 2003 the singer claimed that Bubbles shared his toilet, and cleaned his bedroom. Later it was reported that Jackson bought the bones of The Elephant Man. Although untrue, it was a story that Jackson again disseminated to the tabloid press. These stories inspired the pejorative nickname "Wacko Jacko", which Jackson acquired the following year. He would eventually come to despise the nickname. Realizing his mistake, he stopped leaking untruths to the press. However due to the profit being made, the media began making up their own stories.
Jackson's skin was a medium-brown color for the entire duration of his youth, but starting in the early 1980s, his skin gradually grew paler. This change gained widespread media coverage, including rumors that Jackson was bleaching his skin. In the mid-1980s, Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo and lupus; the latter is in remission in Jackson's case, both illnesses make him sensitive to sunlight. The treatments he uses for his condition further lighten his skin tone, and, with the application of pancake makeup to even out blotches, he can appear very pale. The structure of his face has changed as well; several surgeons have speculated that Jackson had undergone multiple nasal surgeries, a forehead lift, thinned lips and a cheekbone surgery. Changes to his face were, in part, due to periods of significant weight loss. Jackson became slimmer in the early 1980s because of a change in diet and a desire for "a dancer's body". Witnesses reported that Jackson was often dizzy and speculated that he was suffering from anorexia nervosa; periods of weight loss would became a recurring problem for the singer later in life. Some medical professionals have publicly stated their belief that the singer has body dysmorphic disorder, a psychological condition whereby the sufferer has no concept of how they are perceived by others.
With the industry expecting another major hit, Jackson's first album in five years, Bad (1987), was highly anticipated. Bad had lower sales than Thriller, but was still a substantial commercial success. In the US, it spawned seven hit singles, five of which ("I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror" and "Dirty Diana") went to number one on the Billboard Hot 100 charts, more than any other album. The album sold over 25 million copies worldwide, and shipped eight million units in the US.
The Bad World Tour began on September 12, 1987, and finished on January 14, 1989. In Japan alone, the tour had 14 sellouts and drew 570,000 people, nearly tripling the previous record of 200,000 in a single tour. Jackson broke a Guinness World Record when 504,000 people attended seven sold-out shows at Wembley Stadium. He performed a total of 123 concerts to a total audience of 4.4 million people, and gained a further Guinness World Record when the tour grossed him $125 million. During the trip he invited underprivileged children to watch for free and gave donations to hospitals, orphanages and other charities.
In 1988, Jackson released his first autobiography, Moonwalk, which took four years to complete. Jackson told of his childhood, his experience in The Jackson 5 and the abuse he suffered as a child. He also spoke of his plastic surgery, saying he had two rhinoplastic surgeries and the surgical creation of a cleft in his chin. In the book, he attributed the change in the structure of his face to puberty, weight loss, a strict vegetarian diet, a change in hair style and stage lighting. Moonwalk reached the top position on The New York Times best sellers' list. The musician then released a film called Moonwalker, which featured live footage, music videos, and a feature film that starred Jackson and Joe Pesci. Moonwalker debuted atop the Billboard Top Music Video Cassette chart, staying there for 22 weeks. It was eventually knocked off the top spot by Michael Jackson: The Legend Continues.
In March 1988, Jackson purchased land near Santa Ynez, California to build Neverland Ranch at a cost of $17 million. It is a Plantilla:Convert property complete with Ferris wheels, an exotic menagerie, a movie theater and a security staff of 40. The property was valued at approximately $100 million in 2003. In 1989, his annual earnings from album sales, endorsements and concerts was estimated at $125 million for that year alone. Shortly afterward, Jackson became the first Westerner to appear in a television advert for Russia.
Jackson's success resulted in his being dubbed the "King of Pop", a nickname conceived by actress and friend Elizabeth Taylor when she presented Jackson with an "Artist of the Decade" award in 1989, proclaiming him "the true king of pop, rock and soul". President George H. W. Bush presented the singer with The White House's special "Artist of the Decade" award in recognition of Jackson's musical influence in the 1980s; Bush commended Jackson for acquiring a "tremendous following" among other achievements. From 1985 to 1990, Jackson donated $500,000 to the United Negro College Fund, and all of the profits from his single "Man in the Mirror" went to charity.
1991–1992: Dangerous and Super BowlEditar
In March 1991, Jackson renewed his contract with Sony for $65 million; a record breaking deal at the time. Jackson released his eighth album Dangerous in 1991. The Dangerous album had 7 million shipments in the US and sold 30 million copies worldwide; its sales were higher than Bad's. In the US, the album's first single "Black or White" was the album's biggest hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and remaining there for seven weeks, with similar chart performances worldwide. The album's second single "Remember the Time" spent eight weeks in the top five in the US, peaking at number three on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. In 1993, Jackson performed the song at the Soul Train Awards in a wheelchair, saying he had suffered an injury in rehearsals. In the UK and other parts of Europe, "Heal the World" was the biggest hit from the album; it sold 450,000 copies in the UK and spent five weeks at two in 1992.
Jackson founded the "Heal the World Foundation" in 1992. The charity organization brought underprivileged children to Jackson's Neverland Ranch, located outside Santa Ynez, California, to go on theme park rides that Jackson had built on the property after he purchased it in 1988. The foundation also sent millions of dollars around the globe to help children threatened by war and disease. The Dangerous World Tour began on June 27, 1992, and finished on November 11, 1993. Jackson performed to 3.5 million people in 67 concerts. All profits from the concerts went to the "Heal the World Foundation", raising millions of dollars in relief. He sold the broadcast rights to his Dangerous world tour to HBO for $20 million, a record-breaking deal that still stands. Following the illness and death of Ryan White, Jackson helped draw public attention to HIV/AIDS, something that was still controversial at the time. He publicly pleaded with the Clinton Administration at Bill Clinton's Inaugural Gala to give more money to HIV/AIDS charities and research.
In a high-profile visit to Africa, Jackson visited several countries, among them Gabon and Egypt. His first stop to Gabon was greeted with a sizable reception of more than 100,000 people in "spiritual bedlam", some of them carrying signs that read, "Welcome Home Michael". In his trip to the Ivory Coast, Jackson was crowned "King Sani" by a tribal chief. He then thanked the dignitaries in French and English, signed official documents formalizing his kingship and sat on a golden throne while presiding over ceremonial dances.
One of Jackson's most acclaimed performances came during the halftime show at Super Bowl XXVII. As the performances began, Jackson was catapulted onto the stage as fireworks went off behind him. As he landed on the canvass, he maintained a motionless "clenched fist, standing statue stance", dressed in a gold and black military outfit and sunglasses; he remained completely motionless for several minutes while the crowd cheered. He then slowly removed his sunglasses, threw them away and began to sing and dance. His routine included four songs: "Jam", "Billie Jean", "Black or White" and "Heal the World". It was the first Super Bowl where the audience figures increased during the half-time show, and was viewed by 135 million Americans alone; Jackson's Dangerous album rose 90 places up the album chart.
Jackson was given the "Living Legend Award" at the 35th Annual Grammy Awards in Los Angeles. "Black or White" was Grammy nominated for best vocal performance. "Jam" gained two nominations: Best R&B Vocal Performance and Best R&B Song.
1993–1994: Sexual abuse accusations and marriageEditar
Jackson gave a 90-minute interview with Oprah Winfrey in February 1993, his first television interview since 1979. He grimaced when speaking of his childhood abuse at the hands of his father; he believed he had missed out on much of his childhood years, admitting that he often cried from loneliness. He denied previous tabloid rumors that he bought the bones of the Elephant Man or slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. The entertainer went on to dispel suggestions that he bleached his skin, admitting for the first time that he had vitiligo. The interview was watched by 90 million Americans, becoming the fourth most-viewed non-sport program in US history. It also started a public debate on the topic of vitiligo, a relatively unknown condition before then. Dangerous re-entered the album chart top 10, more than a year after its original release.
Jackson was accused of child sexual abuse by a 13-year-old child named Jordan Chandler and his father Evan Chandler. The friendship between Jackson and Evan Chandler broke down. Sometime afterward, Evan Chandler was tape-recorded saying amongst other things, "If I go through with this, I win big-time. There's no way I lose. I will get everything I want and they will be destroyed forever...Michael's career will be over". A year after they had met, under the influence of a controversial sedative, Jordan Chandler told his father that Jackson had touched his penis. Evan Chandler and Jackson, represented by their legal teams, then engaged in unsuccessful negotiations to resolve the issue in a financial settlement; the negotiations were initiated by Chandler but Jackson did make several counter offers. Jordan Chandler then told a psychiatrist and later police that he and Jackson had engaged in acts of kissing, masturbation and oral sex, as well as giving a detailed description of what he alleged were the singer's genitals.
An official investigation began, with Jordan Chandler's mother adamant that there was no wrongdoing on Jackson's part. Neverland Ranch was searched; multiple children and family members strongly denied that he was a pedophile. Jackson's image took a further turn for the worse when his older sister La Toya Jackson accused him of being a pedophile, a statement she later retracted. Jackson agreed to a 25-minute strip search, conducted at his ranch. The search was required to see if a description provided by Jordan Chandler was accurate. Doctors concluded that there were some strong similarities, but it was not a definitive match. Jackson made an emotional public statement on the events; he proclaimed his innocence, criticized what he perceived as biased media coverage and told of his strip search.
Jackson began taking painkillers, Valium, Xanax and Ativan to deal with the stress of the allegations made against him. By the fall of 1993, Jackson was addicted to the drugs. Jackson's health deteriorated to the extent that he canceled the remainder of the Dangerous World Tour and went into drug rehabilitation for a few months. The stress of the allegations also caused Jackson to stop eating, losing a large amount of weight. With his health in decline, Jackson's friends and legal advisers took over his defense and finances; they called on him to settle the allegations out of court, believing that he could not endure a lengthy trial.
Tabloid reaction to the allegations put Jackson in an unfavorable light. Complaints about the coverage and media included everything from bias against Jackson, accepting stories of alleged criminal activity for money to engaging in illegal activity themselves. On January 1, 1994, Jackson settled with the Chandler family and their legal team out of court, in a civil lawsuit for $22 million. After the settlement Jordan Chandler refused to continue with Police criminal proceedings. Jackson was never charged, and the state closed its criminal investigation, citing lack of evidence.
Later that year, Jackson married singer-songwriter Lisa Marie Presley, the daughter of Elvis Presley. They had first met in 1975 during one of Jackson's family engagements at the MGM Grand, and were reconnected through a mutual friend in early 1993. They stayed in contact every day over the telephone. As child molestation accusations became public, Jackson became dependent on Lisa Marie for emotional support; she was concerned about his faltering health and addiction to drugs. Lisa Marie explained, "I believed he didn't do anything wrong and that he was wrongly accused and yes I started falling for him. I wanted to save him. I felt that I could do it." In a phone call he made to her, she described him as high, incoherent and delusional. Shortly afterward, she tried to persuade Jackson to settle the allegations out of court and go into rehabilitation to recover—he subsequently did both. Jackson proposed to Lisa Marie over the telephone towards the fall of 1993, saying, "If I asked you to marry me, would you do it?". Presley and Jackson married in the Dominican Republic in secrecy, the parties denied that they had married for nearly two months. The marriage was, in her words, "a married couple's life ... that was sexually active". At the time, the tabloid media speculated that the wedding was a ploy to prop up Jackson's public image in light of prior sexual abuse allegations. Jackson and Presley divorced less than two years later, remaining friendly.
1995–1999: HIStory, second marriage and fatherhoodEditar
In 1995, Jackson merged his Northern Songs catalog with Sony's publishing division creating Sony/ATV Music Publishing. Jackson retained half-ownership of the company, earned $95 million upfront as well as the rights to even more songs. He then released the double album HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I. The first disc, HIStory Begins, was a 15-track greatest hits album, and was later released as Greatest Hits — HIStory Vol. I in 2001, the second disc, HIStory Continues, contained 15 new songs. The album debuted at number one on the charts and has been certified for seven million shipments in the US. It is the best-selling multiple-disc album of all-time, with 18 million copies (36 million units) sold worldwide. HIStory received a Grammy nomination for best album.
The first single released from the album was "Scream", sung and performed with Jackson's youngest sister Janet. The single had the highest debut on the Billboard Hot 100 at number five, and received a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Collaboration With Vocals". "You Are Not Alone" was the second single released from HIStory; it holds the Guinness World Record for the first song ever to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. It was seen as a major artistic and commercial success, receiving a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Vocal Performance". In late 1995, Jackson was rushed to a hospital after collapsing during rehearsals for a televised performance; the incident was caused by a stress related panic attack. "Earth Song" was the third single released from HIStory, and topped the UK singles chart for six weeks over Christmas 1995; it sold a million copies, making it Jackson's most successful single in the UK.
The HIStory World Tour began on September 7, 1996, and finished on October 15, 1997. Jackson performed 82 concerts in 58 cities to over 4.5 million fans. The show, which visited 5 continents and 35 countries, became Jackson's most successful in terms of audience figures; he has not toured since. During the Australian leg of the HIStory World Tour, Jackson married dermatologist's nurse, Deborah Jeanne Rowe, with whom he fathered a son, Michael Joseph Jackson, Jr. (also known as "Prince"), and a daughter, Paris Michael Katherine Jackson. The pair first met in the mid-1980s, when Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo. She spent many years treating his illness as well as providing emotional support, they built a strong friendship, before becoming romantically involved. Originally there were no plans to marry, but following Rowe's first pregnancy, Jackson's mother intervened and persuaded them to. The couple divorced in 1999, with Rowe giving full custody rights of the children to Jackson, they still remain friends.
In 1997, Jackson released Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix, which contained remixes of hit singles from HIStory and five new songs. As of 2004, the record has sold 4 million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling remix album ever released. It reached number one in the UK, as did the title track. In the US, the album was certified platinum, but only reached number 24. Forbes placed his annual income at $35 million in 1996 and $20 million in 1997.
Throughout June 1999, Jackson was involved in a number of charitable events. He joined Luciano Pavarotti for a benefit concert in Modena, Italy. The show was in support of the non-profit organization Warchild, and raised a million dollars for the refugees of Kosovo, as well as additional funds for the children of Guatemala. Later that month, Jackson organized a set of "Michael Jackson & Friends" benefit concerts in Germany and Korea. Other artists involved included Slash, The Scorpions, Boys II Men, Luther Vandross, Mariah Carey, Andrea Bocelli and Luciano Pavarotti. The proceeds went to the "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund", the Red Cross and UNESCO.
2000–2002: Label dispute, Invincible and third childEditar
In 2000, Jackson was listed in the book of Guinness World Records for his support of 39 charities, more than any other entertainer or personality. At the time, Jackson was waiting for the licenses to the masters of his albums to revert back to him; this allowed him to promote his old material how he liked and prevented Sony from getting a cut of the profit. Jackson expected this to occur early in the new millennium, however, due to the fine print and various clauses in the contract, this revert date is still many years away. Jackson began an investigation, and it emerged that the attorney who represented the singer in the deal was also representing Sony, creating a conflict of interest. Jackson was also concerned about another conflict of interest. For a number of years, Sony had been pushing to buy all of Jackson's share in their music catalog venture. If Jackson's career or financial situation were to deteriorate, he would have to sell his catalog. Thus, Sony had something to gain from Jackson's career failing. Jackson was able to use these conflicts as leverage to exit his contract early. Just before the release of Invincible, Jackson informed the head of Sony Music Entertainment, Tommy Mottola, that he was leaving Sony. As a result, all singles releases, video shootings and promotions concerning the Invincible album were canceled. Jackson made allegations in July 2002 that Mottola was a "devil" and a "racist" who did not support his African-American artists, using them merely for his own personal gain. He charged that Mottola had called his colleague Irv Gotti a "fat nigger". Sony disputed claims that they had failed to promote Invincible with sufficient energy, maintaining that Jackson refused to tour in the US.
Six years after his last studio album and after spending much of the late 1990s to early millennium out of the public eye, Jackson released Invincible in October 2001 to much anticipation. To help promote the album, a special 30th Anniversary celebration at Madison Square Garden occurred in September 2001 to mark the singer's 30th year as a solo artist. Jackson appeared onstage alongside his brothers for the first time since 1984. The show also featured performances by Mýa, Usher, Whitney Houston, 'N Sync, and Slash, among other artists. In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Jackson helped organize the United We Stand: What More Can I Give benefit concert at RFK Stadium in Washington D.C.. The concert was aired on October 21, 2001, and included performances from dozens of major artists, including Jackson, who performed his song "What More Can I Give" as the finale. Invincible was a commercial success, debuting atop the charts in 13 countries and going on to sell approximately 10 million copies worldwide. It received double-platinum certification in the US. However, the sales for Invincible were notably low compared to his previous releases, due in part to a diminishing pop music industry, the lack of promotion, no supporting world tour and the label dispute. The album spawned three singles, "You Rock My World", "Cry" and "Butterflies", the latter did not have a music video.
Reviews of Invincible were generally favorable, but there was a consensus that it was one of Jackson's least impressive records, mostly because it was too long. Allmusic gave the record three out of five stars saying, "Ultimately, the record runs too long, losing steam halfway through...[It's] not enough to make Invincible the comeback Jackson needed...but it does offer a reminder that he can really craft good pop". NME gave the record six out of ten, stating, "Invincible is a relevant and rejuvenated comeback album made overlong". Rolling Stone gave Invincible three out of five stars, believing that the early R&B tracks were good, but the later ballads made the record too long. Reviewer Robert Christgau gave the album an A-, saying, "His skills seem undiminished...his funk is steelier and his ballads are airier, both to disquieting effect. At 78 minutes this is too long." This was the same grade he gave Jackson's landmark album Thriller when originally released. Jackson and his supporters maintain that reviews were unfair, often discussing the singer's perceived eccentric image and past troubles, or making him the subject of ridicule. NME called him "Michael 'Actually Quite Scary Now' Jackson", a "Fucking freak" and "a bit of a wanker". Allmusic brought up "[Jackson's] truly ugly public scandal, and swirling rumors about his diminishing finances". Rolling Stone believed that "every song is full of grandiose desperation. It's an excruciatingly self-referential place, worsened further by its namesake's unmatched controversies and weirdnesses." Robert Christgau believed Jackson had a "grotesque life magnified by his grotesque wealth". He was also of the opinion that Jackson singing about helping children was "offensive".
Jackson's third child, Prince Michael Jackson II (also known as Blanket) was born in 2002. The mother's identity has not been released by Jackson, but he has said the child was the result of artificial insemination from a surrogate mother and his own sperm cells. In November of that year, Jackson brought his new born son onto the balcony of his hotel room. Holding him in his right arm, with a cloth loosely draped over the baby's face, Jackson briefly extended the baby over the railing of the balcony, causing widespread criticism.
2003–2007: Documentary, trial and business venturesEditar
In 2003, Sony put out a compilation of Jackson's number-one hits on CD and DVD, titled Number Ones, which sold over six million copies worldwide. In the US it peaked at number 13 and was certified platinum by the RIAA. At the same time, Jackson was charged with seven counts of child molestation and two counts of administering an intoxicating agent in order to commit that felony; all charges regarded the same boy, Gavin Arvizo, who was under 14 at the time of the alleged crime. Earlier that year, a Granada Television documentary featuring Jackson showed him holding hands and discussing sleeping arrangements with Arvizo, who would later accuse him of child sexual abuse. In the same documentary Jackson was observed spending large amounts of money in an apparently frivolous manner, when he spent $6 million in a single store.
Jackson denied the sexual abuse allegations, saying that the sleepovers were in no way sexual in nature. Jackson's friend Elizabeth Taylor defended him on Larry King Live, saying that she had been there when they "were in the bed, watching television. There was nothing abnormal about it. There was no touchy-feely going on. We laughed like children and we watched a lot of Walt Disney. There was nothing odd about it." During the investigation, Jackson's profile were examined by a mental health professional called Dr. Stan Katz; the doctor spent several hours with the accuser too. The assessment made by Katz, was that Jackson had become a regressed 10-year-old and did not fit the profile of a pedophile.
Following his upcoming trial, Jackson became dependent on morphine and Demerol, which he subsequently overcame. The People v. Jackson trial began in Santa Maria, California, two years after Jackson was originally charged. The trial lasted five months, until the end of May 2005. During the trial, the singer again suffered from stress-related illnesses and severe weight loss, that would alter his appearance. In June, Jackson was acquitted on all counts. Following the trial, Jackson relocated to the Persian Gulf island of Bahrain.
Sony BMG released Visionary: The Video Singles to the European market: a series of 20 of his biggest hit singles of the 1980s and 1990s. Each single was issued weekly over a five-month period in Dual Disc format (DVD video on one side, CD audio on the other), and the whole group of discs was made available as a boxed set afterwards. The box set was released in the US on November 14, 2006.
Reports of financial problems for Jackson became frequent in 2006 after the closure of the main house on the Neverland Ranch as a cost-cutting measure. One prominent financial issue for him concerned a $270 million loan secured against his music publishing holdings. After delayed repayments on the loan, a refinancing package shifted the loans from Bank of America to debt specialists Fortress Investments. A new package proposed by Sony would have had Jackson borrow an additional $300 million and reduce the interest rate payable on the loan, while giving Sony the future option to buy half of Jackson's stake in their jointly owned publishing company (leaving Jackson with a 25% stake). Jackson agreed to a Sony-backed refinancing deal, although details were not made public. Despite these loans, according to Forbes, Jackson was still making as much as $75 million a year from his publishing partnership with Sony alone.
One of Jackson's first documented public appearances since his trial was in November 2006, when he visited the London office of the Guinness World Records. He received eight records, among them "First Entertainer to Earn More Than 100 Million Dollars in a Year" and "First Entertainer to Sell More Than 100 Million Albums Outside the United States". Jackson was awarded the Diamond Award on November 15, 2006, for selling over 100 million albums, at the World Music Awards. Following the death of James Brown, Jackson returned to the US to pay his respects. He, along with more than 8,000 people, paid tribute during Brown's public funeral on December 30, 2006. In late 2006, Jackson agreed to share joint custody of his first two children with his second ex-wife. Jackson and Sony bought Famous Music LLC from Viacom in 2007. This deal gave him the rights to songs by Eminem, Shakira and Beck, among others.
2008–present: Thriller 25 and King of PopEditar
Jackson issued the double-disc album Thriller 25, a 25th anniversary edition of Thriller. The set contained the original nine tracks from Thriller, re-mixes and a new song called "For All Time". Two singles were released to moderate success: "The Girl Is Mine 2008" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin' 2008". Thriller 25 was a commercial success, having done particularly well as a re-issue, peaking at number one in eight countries and Europe. It reached number two in the US, number three in the UK and top 10 on over 30 national charts. In the US, Thriller 25 was just 14,000 copies short of reaching the peak position, selling 166,000 copies. It was ineligible for the Billboard 200 chart as a re-release, but entered atop the Pop Catalog chart, where it stayed for 10 non-consecutive weeks and had the best sales on that chart since December 1996. After 12 weeks it sold 3 million copies worldwide. With the arrival of Halloween that November, Thriller 25 spent an eleventh non-consecutive week atop the catalog chart. This brought US sales of the album to 688,000 copies, making it the best selling catalog album of 2008.
To celebrate Jackson's 50th birthday, Sony BMG released a compilation album called King of Pop in various countries. These albums included tracks from Jackson's group and solo career, all voted for by fans. Sony added a previously unreleased "MegaMix" by Jason Nevins. The albums had different tracklists, according to how the fans of each nation voted. Although it was not released in the US, King of Pop did reach the top 10 in the vast majority of countries it was issued in. It also charted in other countries, albeit lower, from imported sales.
Fortress considered a foreclosure sale of Neverland Ranch to service his loan, but ultimately sold the debt to Colony Capital LLC in May of that year. On November 10, 2008 Jackson transferred the title of Neverland Ranch to Sycamore Valley Ranch Company LLC. It is unclear if Jackson still owns the property, since Sycamore Valley Ranch is a joint venture between Jackson and an affiliate of Colony Capital LLC.
Themes and genresEditar
Steve Huey of Allmusic asserts that throughout his solo career, Jackson's versatility has allowed him to experiment with various themes and genres. As a musician, he has ranged from Motown's dance fare and ballads to techno-edged new jack swing to work that incorporates both funk rhythms and hard rock guitar. Unlike many artists, Jackson did not write his songs on paper. Instead he would dictate into a sound recorder; when recording he would sing from memory. Several critics observed Off the Wall was crafted from funk, disco-pop, soul, soft rock, jazz and pop ballads. Prominent examples include the ballad "She's out of My Life", and the two disco tunes "Workin' Day and Night" and "Get on the Floor".
According to Huey, Thriller refined the strengths of Off the Wall; the dance and rock tracks were more aggressive, while the pop tunes and ballads were softer and more soulful. Notable tracks included the ballads "The Lady in My Life", "Human Nature" and "The Girl Is Mine"; the funk pieces "Billie Jean" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'"; and the disco set "Baby Be Mine" and "P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing)". With Thriller, Christoper Connelly of Rolling Stone commented that Jackson developed his long association with the subliminal theme of paranoia and darker imagery. Allmusic's Stephen Erlewine noted this is evident on the songs "Billie Jean" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'". In "Billie Jean", Jackson sings about an obsessive fan who alleges he has fathered a child of hers. In "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'" he argues against gossip and the media. The anti-gang-violence rock song "Beat It" became a homage to West Side Story, and was Jackson's first successful rock cross-over piece, according to Huey. He also observed that the title track "Thriller" began Jackson's interest with the theme of the supernatural, a topic he revisited in subsequent years. In 1985, Jackson wrote the charity anthem "We Are the World"; humanitarian themes later became a central component of his life and music. Plantilla:Sound sample box align left Plantilla:Multi-listen start
|Michael Jackson - "Thriller"|
|Excerpt of the album's title track, and one of Jackson's signature pieces, "Thriller", released as a single in 1984. Jackson utilizes cinematic sound effects, horror film motifs and vocal trickery to convey a sense of danger in his work.|
|Michael Jackson - "Smooth Criminal"|
|One of BadPlantilla:'s signature pieces, released as a single in 1988. Jackson uses digital drum sounds, keyboard created bass lines and other percussion elements to give the impression of a pulsing heart.|
Plantilla:Multi-listen end Plantilla:Sample box end In Bad, Jackson's concept of the predatory lover can be seen on the rock song "Dirty Diana". The lead single "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" was a traditional love ballad, while "Man in the Mirror", an anthemic ballad of confession and resolution, improved on his earlier "We Are the World". "Smooth Criminal" was an evocation of bloody assault, rape and likely murder. Allmusic's Stephen Erlewine states that Dangerous presents Jackson as a stark paradoxal individual. He comments the album is more diverse than his previous Bad, as it appeals to an urban audience while also attracting the middle class with anthems like "Heal the World". The first half of the record is dedicated to new jack swing, including songs like "Jam" and "Remember the Time". The album is Jackson's first where social ills become a primary theme; "Why You Wanna Trip on Me", for example, protests against world hunger, AIDS, homelessness and drugs. Dangerous contains sexually charged efforts like "In the Closet", a love song about desire and denial, risk and repression, solitude and connection, privacy and revelation. The title track continues the theme of the predatory lover and compulsive desire. The second half includes introspective, pop-gospel anthems such as "Will You Be There", "Heal the World" and "Keep the Faith"; these songs show Jackson finally opening up about various personal struggles and worries. In the ballad "Gone Too Soon", Jackson gives tribute to his friend Ryan White and the plight of those with AIDS.
HIStory creates an atmosphere of paranoia. Its content focuses on the hardships and public struggles Jackson went through just prior to its production. In the new jack swing-funk-rock efforts "Scream" and "Tabloid Junkie", along with the R&B ballad "You Are Not Alone", Jackson retaliates against the injustice and isolation he feels, and directs much of his anger at the media. In the introspective ballad "Stranger in Moscow", Jackson laments over his "fall from grace", while songs like "Earth Song", "Childhood", "Little Susie" and "Smile" are all operatic pop pieces. In the track "D.S.", Jackson launched a verbal attack against Tom Sneddon. He describes Sneddon as an antisocial, white supremacist who wanted to "get my ass, dead or alive". Of the song, Sneddon said, "I have not—shall we say—done him the honor of listening to it, but I’ve been told that it ends with the sound of a gunshot". Invincible found Jackson working heavily with producer Rodney Jerkins. It is a record made up of urban soul like "Cry" and "The Lost Children", ballads such as "Speechless", "Break of Dawn" and "Butterflies" and mixes hip hop, pop and rap in "2000 Watts", "Heartbreaker" and "Invincible".
|Michael Jackson - "Black or White"|
|The lead single from Dangerous, it remains one of his most successful songs to date. It also contains elements of hard rock. The track contains many features of Jackson's vocal style, including the vocal hiccup he is known for.|
Plantilla:Multi-listen end Plantilla:Sample box end Jackson has been singing since a child, and over time his voice and vocal style have notably changed, either through puberty or a personal preference to align his vocal interpretation to the themes and genres he chooses to express. Between 1971 and 1975, Jackson's voice "descended ever so slightly from boy soprano to his current androgynous high tenor". In the mid-1970s, the singer adopted a "vocal hiccup" as seen in "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)". The purpose of the hiccup—somewhat like a gulping for air or gasping—is to help promote a certain emotion; be it excitement, sadness or fear. With the arrival of Off the Wall in the late 1970s, Jackson's abilities as a vocalist were well regarded; Allmusic described him as a "blindingly gifted vocalist". At the time, Rolling Stone compared his vocals to the "breathless, dreamy stutter" of Stevie Wonder. Their analysis was also that "Jackson's feathery-timbered tenor is extraordinary beautiful. It slides smoothly into a startling falsetto that's used very daringly". 1982 saw the release of Thriller, and Rolling Stone were of the opinion that Jackson was then singing in a "fully adult voice" that was "tinged by sadness".
The release of "Bad" in 1987 displayed gritty lead vocals on the verse and lighter tones employed on the chorus. A distinctive deliberate mispronunciation used frequently by Jackson, occasionally spelt "cha'mone" or "shamone", is also a staple in impressions and caricatures of him. The turn of the 1990s saw the release of the paradoxical, introspective album Dangerous, here Jackson used his vocals to intensify the split themes and genres described earlier. The New York Times noted that on some tracks, "he gulps for breath, his voice quivers with anxiety or drops to a desperate whisper, hissing through clenched teeth" and he had a "wretched tone". When singing of brotherhood or self-esteem the musician would return to "smooth" vocals. "In the Closet" contained heavy breathing and a loop of five scat-sung syllables, whereas in the albums title track, Jackson performs a spoken rap. When commenting on Invincible, Rolling Stone were of the opinion that—at the age of 43—Jackson still performed, "exquisitely voiced rhythm tracks and vibrating vocal harmonies". Nelson George summed by Jackson's vocals as, "The grace, the aggression, the growling, the natural boyishness, the falsetto, the smoothness—that combination of elements mark him as a major vocalist".
Steve Huey of Allmusic observes the fact that Jackson transformed the music video into an art form and a promotional tool through complex story lines, dance routines, special effects and famous cameo appearances; simultaneously breaking down racial barriers. Before the success of the Thriller album, Jackson struggled to receive coverage on MTV because he was African American. Pressure from CBS Records persuaded MTV to start showing "Billie Jean" and later "Beat It", leading to a lengthy partnership with Jackson that helped other black music artists gain recognition. The popularity of his video on MTV helped to put the relatively young channel "on the map"; MTV's focus shifted in favor of pop and R&B. Short films like Thriller largely remained unique to Jackson, while the group dance sequence in "Beat It" has frequently been imitated. The choreography in Thriller has become a part of global pop culture, replicated everywhere from Bollywood to prisons in the Philippines. The Thriller short film marked an increase in scale for music videos, and has been named the most successful music video ever by the Guinness World Records.
In the 18-minute music video for "Bad"—directed by Martin Scorsese—Jackson began using sexual imagery and choreography not previously seen in his work. He occasionally grabbed or touched his chest, torso and crotch. While he has described this as "choreography," it garnered a mixed reception from both fans and critics; Time magazine described it as "infamous". The video also featured Wesley Snipes; Jackson's videos would often feature famous cameos roles in the future. For "Smooth Criminal", Jackson experimented with an innovative "anti-gravity lean" in his performances, for which he was granted US Patent No. 5,255,452. Although the music video for "Leave Me Alone" was not officially released in the US, in 1989, it was nominated for four Billboard Music Video Awards, winning three; the same year it won a Golden Lion Award for the quality of the special effects used in its production. In 1990, "Leave Me Alone" won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form.
The MTV Video Vanguard Artist of the Decade Award was given to Jackson to celebrate his accomplishments in the art form in the 1980s; the following year the award was renamed in his honor. "Black or White" was accompanied by a controversial music video, which, on November 14, 1991, simultaneously premiered in 27 countries with an estimated audience of 500 million people, the largest viewing ever for a music video. It featured scenes construed as having a sexual nature as well as depictions of violence. The offending scenes in the final half of the 14-minute version were edited out to prevent the video from being banned, and Jackson apologized. Along with Jackson, it featured Macaulay Culkin, Peggy Lipton and George Wendt. It helped usher in morphing as an important technology in music videos.
"Remember the Time" was an elaborate production, and became one of his longest videos at over nine minutes. Set in ancient Egypt, it featured groundbreaking visual effects and appearances by Eddie Murphy, Iman and Magic Johnson, along with a distinct complex dance routine. The video for "In the Closet" was Jackson's most sexually provocative piece to date. It featured supermodel Naomi Campbell in a courtship dance with Jackson. The video was banned in South Africa because of its imagery.
The music video for "Scream", directed by Mark Romanek and production designer Tom Foden, is one of Jackson's most critically acclaimed. In 1995, it gained 11 MTV Video Music Award Nominations—more than any other music video—and won "Best Dance Video", "Best Choreography", and "Best Art Direction". The song and its accompanying video are a response to the backlash Jackson received from the media after being accused of child molestation in 1993. Foden commented "Mark had written the treatment and the general idea was that Michael and Janet were on this large spacecraft. And they, were alone ... They were getting away from Earth, and the different sets were the different environments on the spacecraft where they could have a little bit of fun and where they could relax". Production of the music video's 13-piece set was restricted to a one-month period and was produced by Foden art directors Richard Berg, Jeff Hall, and Martin Mervel. Foden described the assignment as a "military operation" as he explained "[t]he idea was to give each of the art directors three sets: a complicated one, a not-so-complicated one, and one of the smaller, easier vignettes." A year later, it won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form; shortly afterward Guinness World Records listed it as the most expensive music video ever made at a cost of $7 million.
"Earth Song" was accompanied by an expensive and well-received music video that gained a Grammy nomination for Best Music Video, Short Form in 1997. The video had an environmental theme, showing images of animal cruelty, deforestation, pollution and war. Using special effects, time is reversed so that life returns, war ends and the forests re-grow. Released in 1997 and premiering at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, Ghosts was a short film written by Jackson and Stephen King and directed by Stan Winston. The video for Ghosts is over 38 minutes long and holds the Guinness World Record as the world's longest music video.
Legacy and influenceEditar
Inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1984, Jackson has had a notable impact on music and culture throughout the world. He broke down racial barriers, transformed the art of the music video and paved the way for modern pop music in his own country. Jackson's work, distinctive musical sound and vocal style have influenced numerous hip hop, pop and R&B artists, including Mariah Carey, Usher, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, R. Kelly and Ne-Yo. For much of his career, he had an "unparalleled" level of worldwide influence over the younger generation through his musical and humanitarian contributions.
Throughout his career he received numerous honors and awards, including the World Music Awards' Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium, the American Music Award's Artist of the Century Award and the Bambi Pop Artist of the Millennium Award. He is a double-inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, once as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1997 and later as a solo artist in 2001. Jackson was also an inductee of the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2002. His awards include multiple Guinness World Records (eight in 2006 alone), 13 Grammy Awards, 13 number one singles in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era—and the sale of over 750 million units worldwide.
He is characterized as "an unstoppable juggernaut, possessed of all the tools to dominate the charts seemingly at will: an instantly identifiable voice, eye-popping dance moves, stunning musical versatility and loads of sheer star power". In the mid-1980s, Time described Jackson as "the hottest single phenomenon since Elvis Presley". By 1990, Vanity Fair had already cited Jackson as the most popular artist in the history of show business. Daily Telegraph writer Tom Utley called him an "extremely important figure in the history of popular culture" and a "genius". His total lifetime earnings from royalties on his solo recordings and music videos, revenue from concerts and endorsements have been estimated at $500 million; some analysts have speculated that his music catalog holdings could be worth billions of dollars. Jackson's successful career has made him a part of pop culture for almost four decades. In recent years he has been cited as one of the world's most famous men.
- 1972: Got to Be There
- 1972: Ben
- 1973: Music & Me
- 1975: Forever, Michael
- 1979: Off the Wall
- 1982: Thriller
- 1987: Bad
- 1991: Dangerous
- 1995: HIStory
- 2001: Invincible
- List of best-selling albums worldwide
- List of best-selling music artists
- List of most expensive music videos
- List of number-one hits (United States)
- List of Michael Jackson's awards
- List of Michael Jackson tours
- Michael Jackson filmography
- Honorific titles in popular music
- Records and achievements of Michael Jackson
- Sony/ATV Music Publishing
- ↑ 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 George, p. 20
- ↑ Michael Jackson's Secret Childhood. VH1. Consultado el 2008-06-20.
- ↑ 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 Taraborrelli, p. 20–22
- ↑ 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 Campbell (1995), p. 14–16
- ↑ 5,0 5,1 Lewis p. 165–168
- ↑ George, p. 45–46
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 620
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 602
- ↑ 9,0 9,1 The Jackson Five. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Consultado el 2007-05-29.
- ↑ 10,0 10,1 10,2 10,3 10,4 10,5 10,6 10,7 Michael Jackson: Biography. Rolling Stone. Consultado el 2008-02-14.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 17
- ↑ 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 George, p. 22
- ↑ 13,0 13,1 Taraborrelli, p. 138–144
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 163–169
- ↑ 15,0 15,1 15,2 George, p. 23
- ↑ 16,0 16,1 16,2 16,3 Taraborrelli, p. 205–210
- ↑ 17,0 17,1 17,2 George, p. 37–38
- ↑ 18,0 18,1 18,2 18,3 18,4 18,5 18,6 18,7 Taraborrelli, p. 610–612
- ↑ 19,0 19,1 Gold and Platinum. Recording Industry Association of America. Consultado el 2008-04-08.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 188
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 191
- ↑ Grammy Award Winners. The Recording Academy. Consultado el 2008-02-14.
- ↑ Lewis, p. 47
- ↑ Sony announce Thriller 25. Reuters (2007-11-30). Consultado el 2008-04-17.
- ↑ 25,0 25,1 25,2 25,3 George, p. 50–53
- ↑ Michael Jackson Opens Up. CBS (2007-11-06). Consultado el 2008-07-24.
- ↑ 27,0 27,1 27,2 27,3 27,4 Cocks, Jay. «Why He's a Thriller», 'Time', March 1984. Consultado el 2007-03-17.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 226
- ↑ Michael Jackson. VH1 (2007). Consultado el 2007-02-22.
- ↑ Pareles, Jon. «Michael Jackson at 25: A Musical Phenomenon», New York Times, 1984-01-14.
- ↑ Harrington, Richard. «Prince & Michael Jackson: Two Paths to the Top of Pop», The Washington Post, 1988-10-09. Consultado el 2007-05-21.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 238–241
- ↑ Kisselgoff, Anna. «Dancing feet of Michael Jackson», New York Times, 1988-03-06. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 34,0 34,1 Taraborrelli, p. 279–287
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 304–307
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 315–319
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 320
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 340–344
- ↑ 39,0 39,1 «Michael Jackson sells Beatles songs to Sony», New York Times, 1995-11-08. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ «Bad Fortunes», The Guardian, 2005-06-15. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 41,0 41,1 Taraborrelli, p. 333–337
- ↑ 42,0 42,1 Taraborrelli, p. 355–361
- ↑ 43,0 43,1 43,2 43,3 Music's misunderstood superstar. BBC (2005-06-13). Consultado el 2008-07-14.
- ↑ George, p. 41
- ↑ Original by Alan Light
- ↑ 46,0 46,1 Taraborrelli, p. 370–373
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 434–436
- ↑ Surgeon: Michael Jackson A 'Nasal Cripple'. ABC News (2003-02-08). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ 49,0 49,1 49,2 Jackson, p. 229–230
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 312–313
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 434–436
- ↑ 52,0 52,1 52,2 Cocks, Jay. «The Badder They Come», Time, 1987-09-14. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Leopold, Todd (2005-06-06). Michael Jackson: A life in the spotlight. CNN. Consultado el 2008-05-05.
- ↑ 54,0 54,1 54,2 54,3 54,4 Gold and Platinum. Recording Industry Association of America. Consultado el 2008-04-27.
- ↑ 55,0 55,1 55,2 Lewis, p. 95–96
- ↑ Harrington, Richard. «Jackson to Make First Solo U.S. Tour», Washington Post, 1988-01-12. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Jackson, p. 29–31
- ↑ George, p. 42
- ↑ 59,0 59,1 59,2 59,3 59,4 George, p. 43–44
- ↑ 60,0 60,1 60,2 60,3 60,4 Gundersen, Edna. «For Jackson, scandal could spell financial ruin», USA Today, 2007-02-19. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 61,0 61,1 61,2 61,3 61,4 Jackson receives his World Records. Yahoo! (2006-11-14). Consultado el 2006-11-16.
- ↑ Jackson, Michael. HIStory booklet. Sony BMG. p 3
- ↑ 63,0 63,1 Keehner, Jonathan; Mider, Zachary R. (2008-05-11). Michael Jackson's Neverland Loan Sold by Fortress to Colony. Bloomberg L.P. Consultado el 2008-05-12.
- ↑ Remarks on the Upcoming Summit With President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union. The American Presidency Project (1990-04-05). Consultado el 2007-04-08.
- ↑ «Blacks who give back», Ebony, March 1990. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 382
- ↑ Carter, Kelley L.. «New jack swing», Chicago Tribune, 2008-08-11. Consultado el 2008-08-21.
- ↑ 68,0 68,1 68,2 68,3 68,4 68,5 68,6 The return of the King of Pop. MSNBC (2006-11-02). Consultado el 2008-06-08.
- ↑ 69,0 69,1 69,2 69,3 69,4 69,5 69,6 George, p. 45–46
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 459
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 452–454
- ↑ A Timeline of Key Events in Ryan’s Life. Ryanwhite.com. Consultado el 2008-06-20.
- ↑ 73,0 73,1 Harrington, Richard. «Jackson's `Dangerous' Departures; Stylistic Shifts Mar His First Album in 4 Years», Washington Post, 1991-11-24. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 74,0 74,1 74,2 74,3 Johnson, Robert (May de 1992). Michael Jackson: crowned in Africa. Ebony. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 75,0 75,1 1993: Michael Jackson accused of child abuse. BBC (2003-02-08). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 477–478
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 485–486
- ↑ 78,0 78,1 Taraborrelli, p. 496–498
- ↑ 79,0 79,1 Taraborrelli, p. 534–540
- ↑ 80,0 80,1 80,2 80,3 80,4 Taraborrelli, p. 518–520
- ↑ 81,0 81,1 Taraborrelli, p. 524–528
- ↑ 82,0 82,1 Taraborrelli, p. 514–516
- ↑ 83,0 83,1 Taraborrelli, p. 500–507
- ↑ Campbell (1995), p. 47–50
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 540–545
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 510
- ↑ 87,0 87,1 She's Out Of His Life. CNN (2006-01-18). Consultado el 2008-07-24.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 562–564
- ↑ 89,0 89,1 Taraborrelli, p. 580–581
- ↑ 90,0 90,1 «Michael Jackson Bailout Said to Be Close», New York Times, 2006-04-16. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Top 100 Albums (Page 2). Recording Industry Association of America (2008-04-16). Consultado el 2008-04-16.
- ↑ 92,0 92,1 92,2 92,3 92,4 92,5 92,6 92,7 George, p. 48–50
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 576–577
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 597
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 570
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 586
- ↑ 97,0 97,1 Taraborrelli, p. 599–600
- ↑ Ricky Martin, Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Others To Join Pavarotti For Benefit. VH1 (1999-05-05). Consultado el 2008-05-30.
- ↑ Slash, Scorpions, Others Scheduled For "Michael Jackson & Friends". VH1 (1999-05-27). Consultado el 2008-05-30.
- ↑ Lewis, p. 8–9
- ↑ 101,0 101,1 101,2 101,3 101,4 101,5 Taraborrelli, p. 614–617
- ↑ Plantilla:Cite interview
- ↑ Burkeman, Oliver (July 8, 2002). Jacko gets tough: but is he a race crusader or just a falling star?. The Guardian. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Branigan, Tania (September 8, 2001). Jackson spends £20m to be Invincible. The Guardian. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 105,0 105,1 105,2 Michael Jackson :Invincible. Allmusic. Consultado el 2007-09-09.
- ↑ 106,0 106,1 106,2 106,3 Michael Jackson :Invincible. NME (2001-11-30). Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 107,0 107,1 107,2 Hunter, James (2001-12-06). Michael Jackson: Invincible. Rolling Stone. Consultado el 2008-07-20.
- ↑ 108,0 108,1 Christgau, Robert. Robert Christgau: Artist 932. Robert Christgau.com. Consultado el 2008-06-27.
- ↑ Christgau, Robert (1982-12-28). Christgau's Consumer Guide, Dec 28th, 1982. Robert Christgau.com. Consultado el 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Jackson Interview with Ed Bradley on 60 minutes. CBS (2003-12-28). Consultado el 2008-01-24.
- ↑ Jackson to avoid baby stunt probe. CNN (2002-11-20). Consultado el 2008-06-04.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 631
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 640
- ↑ Elizabeth Taylor defends Michael on Larry King Live. CNN (2006-05-30). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 648
- ↑ Taraborrelli, p. 661
- ↑ Davis, Matthew (2005-06-06). Michael Jackson health concerns. BBC. Consultado el 2008-04-14.
- ↑ Associated Press (2005-06-13). Michael Jackson jury reaches verdict. Consultado el 2008-07-12.
- ↑ Jackson settles down to his new life in the Persian Gulf. Gulf News (2006-01-23). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ M J Visionary. Sony BMG Entertainment. Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Michael Jackson Visionary ...The Video Singles. Sony BMG Music Entertainment. Consultado el 2006-11-14.
- ↑ Jackson Closes Neverland House. CBS (2006-03-17). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Jackson strikes deal over loans. BBC (2006-04-14). Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Ackman, Dan (2005-05-14). Really Odd Facts About Michael Jackson. Forbes. Consultado el 2008-08-20.
- ↑ James Brown Saluted By Michael Jackson at Public Funeral Service. MTV (2006-12-30). Consultado el 2006-12-31.
- ↑ Serpe, Gina. Michael Jackson back in U.S.A.. E!. Consultado el 2008-04-27.
- ↑ Jackson child custody battle ends. BBC (2006-09-30). Consultado el 2008-04-16.
- ↑ Michael Jackson buys rights to Eminem tunes and more. Rolling Stone (2007-05-31). Consultado el 2008-06-23.
- ↑ Zona Musical (Spanish). zm.nu. Consultado el 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Thriller the best selling album of all time. digitalproducer (2008-02-20). Consultado el 2008-04-06.
- ↑ Michael Jackson Thriller 25. ultratop.be. Consultado el 2008-04-06.
- ↑ Grein, Paul (2008-05-18). Diva Smackdown. Yahoo!. Consultado el 2008-05-22.
- ↑ Caulfield, Keith. «Big Grammy Gains For Many; King of Pop Returns», 'Billboard', 2008-02-20. Consultado el 2008-02-20.
- ↑ Hasty, Katy. «Johnson Remains No. 1; Winehouse, Hancock Soar», 'Billboard', 2008-02-20. Consultado el 2008-02-20.
- ↑ US fans shun CD. BBC (2005-07-30). Consultado el 2008-04-07.
- ↑ Friedman, Roger (2008-05-16). Jacko: Neverland East in Upstate New York. Fox News Channel. Consultado el 2008-05-22.
- ↑ Waddell, Ray (2008-11-07). Michael Jackson Eyeing London Run?. Billboard. Consultado el 2008-11-08.
- ↑ Choose The Tracks On Michael Jackson's 50th Birthday Album!. Sony BMG Music Entertainment (2008-06-20). Consultado el 2008-06-20.
- ↑ MJ50 - Michael Jackson. mj50.com. Consultado el 2008-06-20.
- ↑ Michael Jackson - King of Pop. acharts.us. Consultado el 2008-09-11.
- ↑ King of Pop. www.ultratop.be. Consultado el 2008-09-05.
- ↑ 
- ↑ ukpress.google.com, Jacko gives up Neverland ranch deed
- ↑ news.yahoo.com, Michael Jackson gives Neverland to corporation
- ↑ 145,00 145,01 145,02 145,03 145,04 145,05 145,06 145,07 145,08 145,09 145,10 Huey, Steve. Michael Jackson — Biography. Allmusic. Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Michael Jackson's Monster Smash. Daily Telegraph (2007-11-25). Consultado el 2008-04-20.
- ↑ 147,0 147,1 147,2 Erlewine, Stephen. Off the Wall Overview. Allmusic. Consultado el 2008-06-15.
- ↑ 148,0 148,1 Holden, Stephen. «Off the Wall : Michael Jackson», Rolling Stone, 1979-11-01. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Henderson, Eric. Michael Jackson:Thriller. Slant. Consultado el 2008-06-15.
- ↑ 150,0 150,1 Erlewine, Stephen (2007-02-19). Thriller Overview. Allmusic. Consultado el 2008-06-15.
- ↑ 151,0 151,1 151,2 151,3 Connelly, Christoper. «Michael Jackson : Thriller», Rolling Stone, 1983-01-28. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 152,0 152,1 152,2 152,3 George, p. 24
- ↑ Pareles, Jon. «How good is Jackson's Bad?», New York Times, 1987-09-03. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 154,0 154,1 Erlewine, Stephen. Dangerous Overview. Allmusic. Consultado el 2008-06-15.
- ↑ 155,0 155,1 155,2 155,3 155,4 155,5 155,6 155,7 Pareles, Jon. «Michael Jackson in the Electronic Wilderness», New York Times, 1991-11-24. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ 156,0 156,1 Erlewine, Stephen. Michael Jackson HIStory Overview. Allmusic. Consultado el 2008-06-15.
- ↑ 157,0 157,1 Hunter, James. «Michael Jackson HIStory», Rolling Stone, 1995-08-10. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Thomas W. (Tom) Sneddon, Jr.. ndaa.org. Consultado el 2008-07-12.
- ↑ Dangerous album. Sony BMG. Consultado el 2008-08-27.
- ↑ Lewarne, Rory (2004-07-26). Pink Grease. Music News. Consultado el 2008-08-10.
- ↑ Michael Jackson, "Billy Jean:. Blender (October de 2005). Consultado el 2007-04-11.
- ↑ 162,0 162,1 Gundersen, Edna. «Music videos changing places», USA Today, 2005-08-25. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Robinson, Bryan (2005-02-23). Why Are Michael Jackson's Fans So Devoted?. ABC News. Consultado el 2007-04-06.
- ↑ Jackson, Michael. Thriller Special Edition Audio.
- ↑ 1500 Prisoners Perform Thriller Dance. The Wrong Advices (2007-07-21). Consultado el 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Jacko goes bollywood. TMZ.com (2006-10-03). Consultado el 2008-04-08.
- ↑ Corliss, Richard (1993-09-06). Who's Bad?. Time. Consultado el 2008-04-23.
- ↑ U.S. Patent 5,255,452; "Method and Means For Creating Anti-Gravity Illusion"; Michael J. Jackson, Michael L. Bush, Dennis Tompkins, issued Oct 26, 1993, Filed June 29, 1992
- ↑ Michael Jackson Dangerous on Film VHS/DVD
- ↑ Campbell (1993), p. 303
- ↑ Campbell (1993), p. 313–314
- ↑ 172,0 172,1 172,2 172,3 Plantilla:Citation
- ↑ Plantilla:Citation
- ↑ Guinness World Records 2006
- ↑ Michael Jackson HIStory on Film volume II VHS/DVD
- ↑ Lewis, p. 125–126
- ↑ Guinness World Records 2004
- ↑ Usher, Usher, Usher: The new 'King of Pop'?. CNN (2004-11-01). Consultado el 2007-03-06.
- ↑ Vozick-Levinson, Simon (2007-04-16). Because of You. Entertainment Weekly. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ ADL happy with Michael Jackson decision. Anti-Defamation League (1995-06-22). Consultado el 2008-07-01.
- ↑ Michael Jackson and Halle Berry Pick Up Bambi Awards in Berlin. Hello! (2002-11-22). Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ Most No. 1s By Artist (All-Time). Billboard. Consultado el 2008-09-08.
- ↑ Grammy Winners. The Recording Academy. Consultado el 2006-11-11.
- ↑ Pop Icon Looks Back At A "Thriller" Of A Career In New Interview. CBS (2007-11-06). Consultado el 2008-02-14.
- ↑ Utley, Tom. «Of course Jackson's odd — but his genius is what matters», 'Daily Telegraph', 2003-03-08. Consultado el 2008-07-23.
- ↑ «Witness: Jacko Lived Way Above Means», Fox News Channel, 2005-05-03. Consultado el 2007-05-30.
- ↑ Tom Sneddon: Dogged prosecutor. BBC (2005-01-31). Consultado el 2008-08-14.
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- George, Nelson (2004). Michael Jackson: The Ultimate Collection booklet. Sony BMG.
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Plantilla:Cite book
- Wikimedia Commons alberga contenido multimedia sobre En:Michael Jackson.
- Sony's Official Michael Jackson website
- Michael Jackson en Internet Movie Database (en inglés)
- Michael Jackson at Allmovie
- Rock and Roll Hall of Fame page on Michael Jackson
- Michael Jackson's Family Tree
- Plantilla:Discogs artist
|NAME||Jackson, Michael Joesph|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Jackson, Michael Joe|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 29, 1958|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Gary, Indiana, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|